## Forschungszentrum Energie

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Vast amounts of oily wastewater are byproducts of the petrochemical and the shipping industry and to this day frequently discharged into water bodies either without or after insufficient treatment. To alleviate the resulting pollution, water treatment processes are in great demand. Bubble column humidifiers (BCHs) as part of humidification–dehumidification systems are predestined for such a task, since they are insensitive to different feed liquids, simple in design and have low maintenance requirements. While humidification in a bubble column has been investigated plentiful for desalination, a systematic investigation of oily wastewater treatment is missing in literature. We filled this gap by analyzing the treatment of an oil–water emulsion experimentally to derive recommendations for future design and operation of BCHs. Our humidity measurements indicate that the air stream is always saturated after humidification for a liquid height of only 10 cm. A residual water mass fraction of 3.5 wt% is measured after a batch run of six hours. Furthermore, continuous measurements show that an increase in oil mass fraction leads to a decrease in system productivity especially for high oil mass fractions. This decrease is caused by the heterogeneity of the liquid temperature profile. A lower liquid height mitigates this heterogeneity, therefore decreasing the heat demand and improving the overall efficiency. The oil content of the produced condensate is below 15 ppm, allowing discharge into various water bodies. The results of our systematic investigation prove suitability and indicate a strong future potential for the use of BCHs in oily wastewater treatment.

Industrial demand side management has shown significant potential to increase the efficiency of industrial energy systems via flexibility management by model-driven optimization methods. We propose a grey-box model of an industrial food processing plant. The model relies on physical and process knowledge and mass and energy balances. The model parameters are estimated using a predictive error method. Optimization methods are applied to separately reduce the total energy consumption, total energy costs and the peak electricity demand of the plant. A viable potential for demand side management in the plant is identified by increasing the energy efficiency, shifting cooling power to low price periods or by peak load reduction.

Grid-scale electrical energy storage (EES) is a key component in cost-effective transition scenarios to renewable energy sources. The requirement of scalability favors EES approaches such as pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH) or compressed-air energy storage (CAES), which utilize the cheap and abundant storage materials water and air, respectively. To overcome the site restriction and low volumetric energy densities attributed to PSH and CAES, liquid-air energy storage (LAES) has been devised; however, it suffers from a rather small round-trip efficiency (RTE) and challenging storage conditions. Aiming to overcome these drawbacks, a novel system for EES is developed using solidified air (i.e., clathrate hydrate of air) as the storable phase of air. A reference plant for solidified-air energy storage (SAES) is conceptualized and modeled thermodynamically using the software CoolProp for water and air as well as empirical data and first-order approximations for the solidified air (SA). The reference plant exhibits a RTE of 52% and a volumetric storage density of 47 kWh per m3 of SA. While this energy density relates to only one half of that in LAES plants, the modeled RTE of SAES is comparable already. Since improved thermal management and the use of thermodynamic promoters can further increase the RTEs in SAES, the technical potential of SAES is in place already. Yet, for a successful implementation of the concept - in addition to economic aspects - questions regarding the stability of SA must be first clarified and challenges related to the processing of SA resolved.

The impact of global warming and climate change has forced countries to introduce strict policies and decarbonization goals toward sustainable development. To achieve the decarbonization of the economy, a substantial increase of renewable energy sources is required to meed energy demand and to transition away from fossil fuels. However, renewables are sensitive to environmental conditions, which may lead to imbalances between energy supply and demand. Battery energy storage systems are gaining more attention for balancing energy systems in existing grid networks at various levels such as bulk power management, transmission and distribution, and for end-users. Integrating battery energy storage systems with renewables can also solve reliability issues related to transient energy production and be used as a buffer source for electrical vehicle fast charging. Despite these advantages, batteries are still expensive and typically built for a single application – either for an energy- or power-dense application – which limits economic feasibility and flexibility. This paper presents a theoretical approach of a hybrid energy storage system that utilizes both energy- and power-dense batteries serving multiple grid applications. The proposed system will employ second use electrical vehicle batteries in order to maximise the potential of battery waste. The approach is based on a survey of battery modelling techniques and control methods. It was found that equivalent circuit models as well as unified control methods are best suited for modelling hybrid energy storages for grid applications. This approach for hybrid modelling is intended to help accelerate the renewable energy transition by providing reliable energy storage.

Bubble column humidifiers (BCHs) are frequently used for the humidification of air in various water treatment applications. A potential but not yet profoundly investigated application of such devices is the treatment of oily wastewater. To evaluate this application, the accumulation of an oil-water emulsion using a BCH is experimentally analyzed. The amount of evaporating water vapor can be evaluated by measuring the humidity ratio of the outlet air. However, humidity measurements are difficult in close to saturated conditions, as the formation of liquid droplets on the sensor impacts the measurement accuracy. We use a heating section after the humidifier, such that no liquid droplets are formed on the sensor. This enables us a more accurate humidity measurement. Two batch measurement runs are conducted with (1) tap water and (2) an oil-water emulsion as the respective liquid phase. The humidity measurement in high humidity conditions is highly accurate with an error margin of below 3 % and can be used to predict the oil concentration of the remaining liquid during operation. The measured humidity ratio corresponds with the removed amount of water vapor for both tap water and the accumulation of an oil-water emulsion. Our measurements show that the residual water content
in the oil-water emulsion is below 4 %.

PV hosting capacity provides utilities the knowledge of the maximum amount of solar installations possible to accommodate in low voltage grids such that no operational problems arise. As the quantification of the hosting capacity requires data collection, grid modelling, and often time-consuming simulations, simplified estimations for large-scale applications are of interest. In this paper, Bayesian statistical inference is applied to estimate the hosting capacities of more than 5000 real feeders in Austria. The results show that the hosting capacity of 95% of the total feeders can be estimated with a mean error below 20% by only having knowledge of a random sample of 5%. Moreover, the hosting capacity estimation at a regional level shows a maximum error below 9%, also relying on a random sample of 5% of the total feeders. Furthermore, the approach proposed provides a methodology to assess new parameters aiming to improve the accuracy of the hosting capacity estimation at a feeder level.

Traditional power grids are mainly based on centralized power generation and subsequent distribution. The increasing penetration of distributed renewable energy sources and the growing number of electrical loads is creating difficulties in balancing supply and demand and threatens the secure and efficient operation of power grids. At the same time, households hold an increasing amount of flexibility, which can be exploited by demand-side management to decrease customer cost and support grid operation. Compared to the collection of individual flexibilities, aggregation reduces optimization complexity, protects households’ privacy, and lowers the communication effort. In mathematical terms, each flexibility is modeled by a set of power profiles, and the aggregated flexibility is modeled by the Minkowski sum of individual flexibilities. As the exact Minkowski sum calculation is generally computationally prohibitive, various approximations can be found in the literature. The main contribution of this paper is a comparative evaluation of several approximation algorithms in terms of novel quality criteria, computational complexity, and communication effort using realistic data. Furthermore, we investigate the dependence of selected comparison criteria on the time horizon length and on the number of households. Our results indicate that none of the algorithms perform satisfactorily in all categories. Hence, we provide guidelines on the application-dependent algorithm choice. Moreover, we demonstrate a major drawback of some inner approximations, namely that they may lead to situations in which not using the flexibility is impossible, which may be suboptimal in certain situations.

Bubble columns are recently used for the humidification of air in water treatment systems and fuel cells. They are well applicable due to their excellent heat and mass transfer and their low technical complexity. To design and operate such devices with high efficiency, the humidification process and the impact of the operating parameters need to be understood to a sufficient degree. To extend this knowledge, we use a refined and novel method to determine the volumetric air–liquid heat and mass transfer coefficients and the humidifier efficiency for various parametric settings. The volumetric transfer coefficients increase with both of the superficial air velocity and the liquid temperature. It is further shown that the decrease of vapor pressure with an increase of the salinity results in a corresponding decrease in the outlet humidity ratio. In contrast to previous studies, liquid heights smaller than 0.1 m are investigated and significant changes in the humidifier efficiency are seen in this range. We present the expected humidifier efficiency with respect to the superficial air velocity and the liquid height in an efficiency chart, such that optimal operating conditions can be determined. Based on this efficiency chart, recommendations for industrial applications as well as future scientific challenges are drawn.